We decided on the page Antibiotics.php that the decision to add antibiotics to the drinking water should be taken only after much soul searching. We showed on that page that there are distinct problems associated with antibiotic (ab)use and that better overall results could be achieved through the use of probiotics.
But probiotic use is not only associated with fighting the colonization of the intestinal tract by pathogenic bacteria. Some studies 1 showed increased weight gain in chickens as a direct consequence of adding a couple of strains of lactobacilli to their diet.
Another study 2 recorded increased egg production and increased immunity all due to the administration of a probiotic. Addition of the probiotic resulted not only in increased egg production but also shell weight, shell thickness and serum calcium. The serum cholesterol as well as the yolk cholesterol were reduced.
Many species of lactobacilli have been shown to prevent infections in chickens but at least one study 3 showed that Lactobacillus rhamnosus protected mice from an infection by Salmonella typhimurium.
Many studies could show that some diseases can effectively be prevented through the administration of probiotics but it certainly would be advantageous if probiotics could be administered to fight an infection already present. A recent study 4 tried to answer this very question and could find no success in the probiotic used to displace Salmonella pullorum which had become established already.
Even so, probiotic use could increase the level of general immunity and consequently could make it easier for the body to fight an already established infection. Probiotic use could also increase the tumoricidal activity of the immune system. The lower the immune status, the more pronounced were both of these effects.
It was 2 years ago that one of my female patients with a very young family was treated locally against ulcerative colitis by having much of her large
and introduced to wearing a bag. Imagine a young attractive woman facing such prospects. Lucky for her, the colon could be re-attached later, but she will only
take an antibiotic as a last resort now. You see, she used to take antibiotics like candy during her late teens and early twenties.
A novel treatment 5 for 6 patients used a round of antibiotics followed by administration of fecal samples donated by volunteers who were extensively screened for parasites and pathogenic bacteria. Such treatment certainly is preferable to surgery.
The above case report as well as the study 6 on feeding chicken litter to newly hatched chicks shows that simple methods such as these are both effective and relatively easy to implement:
In conclusion, let me state my position: Although the use of probiotics seems to be an excellent way to keep pigeons healthy in spite of challenges during their stay in common baskets et cetera, they are not very effective at all in treating pigeons already infected by some bacteria. Consequently, I would remove any sick bird from my loft and either destroy it or treat it with the appropriate antibiotic for the full course followed with probiotics and vitamins before returning it to the loft.
|An interesting parallel:|
Original article can be found at http://www.cbc.ca/canada/calgary/story/2007/11/13/fecal-transplant.html
Don't poo-poo technique: Fecal transplant can cure superbug, doctors sayMore than 90 per cent of C. difficile patients are cured by fecal transplants, studies suggest.
Last Updated: Tuesday, November 13, 2007 | 10:17 AM MTA controversial new treatment, which involves the transplantation of human waste, can treat cases of C. difficile infection. But only a handful of physicians in Canada undertake the messy procedure.
Left unchecked, C. difficile bacteria can cause chronic diarrhea, leaving sufferers virtually confined to their bathrooms.(CBC)
Clostridium difficile is a super bug that commonly spreads in hospital settings and has been linked to the deaths of at least 2,000 people in Quebec since 2003, as well as in other provinces.
Though C. difficile can be kept in check by good bacteria in the bowel, problems can arise when the super bug is treated by antibiotics such as vancomycin. The antibiotics sometimes wipe out the good bacteria but fail to completely kill the C. difficile leaving enough of it that it later flourishes.
"If you wipe out the normal bacteria by taking an antibiotic, then this bug overgrows and it releases a toxin which causes severe diarrhea," Dr. Mike Silverman, an internal medicine specialist from Ajax, Ont., told CBC News.
According to him, the diarrhea can become chronic day after day and month after month. "It's painful, people can't get on with their lives and if doctors can't keep a patient hydrated and nourished, it can be deadly."
Calgary resident Dorothy Badry battled C. difficile for almost a year in 2004.
"You are going to the bathroom at least 40 times a day. And there is a lot of pain associated with that. Your skin starts to break down and the process is extremely painful."
During that time, Badry could not work and could not care for her disabled daughter. "I basically had to give up everything," she said.
Calgary doctor is one of few doing transplantsFecal transplants have become the first-line treatment for chronic recurrent C. difficile in Scandinavia. As well, more and more doctors are using it in the United States.
Studies that have been published show that more than 90 per cent of patients are cured through fecal transplants most of them after just one treatment.
But only a handful of doctors in Canada are willing to undertake the unpleasant procedure which involves taking a healthy person's fecal matter and transplanting it into a person infected with C. difficile.
They cite sanitation reasons for their hesitation.
Calgary physician Dr. Tom Louie, head of infection control at Foothills Hospital, is one of the few physicians in Canada who treats patients with chronic C. difficile with fecal transplants, or fecal therapy. He has done 38 procedures to date.
The procedure involves getting a close relative of the patient, such as a sibling, to donate several days-worth of stool. Louie tests the stool for diseases such as hepatitis and HIV and then mixes it with saline to create liquid feces. He then administers the stool to the patient through a barium enema.
Louie said the technique allows good bacteria from the transplanted stool to reduce the number of C. difficile bacteria in the intestines and to restore normal intestinal function.
He said the process is fairly quick. "It takes me about an hour and I leave it in there overnight. I'm hoping that some of these normal bugs will come and find a home, and when they find a home it will kick out the C. difficile."
'It cured me,' Toronto woman saysMarcia Munro, a Toronto resident, received a fecal transplant from her sister Wendy Sinukoff after suffering from C. difficile for 14 months several years ago.
'This procedure cured me. I know many people die from C. difficile and I want people to know there is hope when you have this illness.'Marcia Munro
"I had to collect stool samples for five days prior to our leaving Toronto, and I collected it in an ice cream container and kept it in the fridge," said Sinukoff.
She had to then fly the samples to Calgary so that Louie could transplant it into her sister a process that involved getting the sample through airport security.
"My biggest fear was that my samples were not allowed to be frozen, so I had to take them as carry-on luggage in the airplane and I was terrified that I was going to be asked to have my luggage searched," she said.
Munro said the transplant was a success.
"It cured me. This procedure cured me and one of reasons I agreed to do this story because it's difficult to talk about is I know many people die from C. difficile and I want people to know there is hope when you have this illness."
|Sunday January 4, 2004|
Tifton, GA, USA
|An excellent article on the use of probiotics to help maintain health. It also gave several suggested new methods, i.e., lactose, Bakers yeast, to help improve health without the use of antibiotics.|
|Wednesday March 3, 2004|
|Hi, A replacement note concerning probiotics & bakers yeast. Despite Dr. Karl's good instructions I managed to mix a soup as a carry over. Please mix your probiotics seperate to carry over probiotic mixture, do not carry over yeast longer than overnight, then wash container before new batch as it will infect & produce a noxious gas in less than 48 hrs! By carrying over I refer to 2 cups of non chlorinated preferably boiled then cooled water, to this add 1/2 to 1 cup of powdered skim milk, next add probiotics & let stand overnight at room temperature, be sure container is prior sterilized by boiling it or at least adding boiling water, do not add probiotic to water much warmer than room temperature. Each day add 1 cup of this mixture to your seperate bread yeast mix, now add a few tablespoons or so of powdered milk, to this add a gallon of water & give to flock. Now add back 1 cup of boiled cooled non chlorinated water to probiotics & 1/2 cup of powdered milk let stand again repeat process. I have had an improvement of ranging out followed by longer time spent loft flying & a substantial reduction in feed consumption despite it being winter. The reason to carry over is simply economics as probiotics grow in the mixture. You can substitute by simply adding probiotics each (prior day ) to watering & it is a good idea to freshen mix weekly, if it smells like buttermilk your on the correct track, if a bad odour occurs toss it. Yeast mix should smell like fresh bread a bit if not toss it. In hot weather I would give this at feeding alternating with fresh water.|
|Friday June 10, 2005|
nigeria, ekiti -state
|i want you to give me more information thanks.|
|Sunday November 26, 2006|
|i found it a better way to keep our pigeons healthy here in pakistan because probiotics can help more than antibiotic.|
|Monday February 5, 2007|
|I never knew probiotic could aid in prevention of salmonella and E. Coli. Only that they could be used to combat GI side effects of anti-biotics. Very interesting|
|Friday June 15, 2007|
|sir, i want information about the "effect of different leval of probiotic feeding in broiler. thanking you|
|Saturday July 18, 2009|
vinaya sree chetla
hyderabad, andhra pradesh
|Sir,i need information about usage of saccharomyceis boullardi, and peadicoccus as probiotic in poultry especially their effects on immunity ,carcass qualities,serum levels of cholesterol,proteins.Ur work was really helpfull for me,hope to see much information from u Sir,thank you|
|Friday September 24, 2010|
|THANKS VERY MUCH FROM THIS SIT HELP ME TOO MUCH. APPRECIATE|